History Girls











King Tut’s grandmother, the powerful and beautiful Queen Tiye, might have had an unattractive flat wart on her forehead, according to a mummy expert.

Located between the eyes, the small protuberance was found on the mummy of the so-called Elder Lady (KV35EL). Boasting long reddish hair falling across her shoulders, the mummy was identified in February 2010 by DNA testing as Queen Tiye, the daughter of Yuya and Thuya, wife of Amenhotep III, and mother of Akhenaten.

The skin growth had gone unnoticed until Mercedes González, director of the Instituto de Estudios Científicos en Momias in Madrid, spotted it looking at the mummy during a visit to the Cairo Museum…..

The wife of the 18th dynasty King Amenhotep III, the mother of the heretic pharaoh Akhenaten and grandmother of King Tut, Tiye (who lived from 1415 to 1340 B.C.), is one of the most intriguing women in Egyptian history.

Described by her husband as “the lady of grace, sweet in her love, who fills the palace with her beauty, the Regent of the North and South, the Great Wife of the King who loves her,” she was the most influential woman of Amenhotep III’s 38-year reign.

Read More: Discovery News



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{June 7, 2010}   Crystal Skulls Faked

Analysis of the Mitchell-Hedges crystal skull using SEM leaves little doubt that this object was carved and polished using modern, high-speed, diamond-coated, rotary, cutting and polishing tools of minute dimensions. This technology is certainly not pre-Columbian. I believe it is decidedly 20th century.

The similarities between the Mitchell-Hedges skull and the British Museum skull suggest that the former is an improved copy of the latter. The recently published SEM study of the British Museum skull additionally suggests it was probably carved within a decade of the date it was first offered for sale in 1881 (Sax, Walsh, et al. 2008: p. 2759). It is not unreasonable to conclude that the Mitchell-Hedges skull, which first appeared in 1933, was also created within short time of its debut.

Frederick A. Mitchell-Hedges began an association with a California art dealer named Frank Dorland in the 1950s to promote and sell an icon he called the Black Virgin of Kazan, which later turned out to be a copy. Anna Mitchell-Hedges continued this relationship after her father died in 1959, ultimately agreeing to Dorland’s proposal to “launch a program about the [crystal] Skull and get your price” (11/25/1963).

A number of wildly speculative publications resulted from this promotion. One, Phrenology (1970), suggested the skull had belonged to the Knights Templar and was taken to British Honduras by Mitchell-Hedges. Another, Ambrose Bierce, F.A. Mitchell-Hedges and the Crystal Skull (1973), claimed that Bierce, a journalist who disappeared in Mexico in 1913, and Mitchell-Hedges had stolen the skull when they were both fighting alongside Pancho Villa.

Later, Dorland hired the novelist Richard Garvin to write The Crystal Skull that had Anna Mitchell-Hedges herself discovering the skull inside of a Maya pyramid at Lubanntun. Eventually, I believe that Anna attempted to legitimize this object through its exhibition in a respected museum—the Museum of the American Indian.

The correspondence between Frederick Dockstader, director of the Museum of the American Indian, and Anna Mitchell-Hedges clearly demonstrates how the process of legitimizing objects with potential mass appeal but dubious authenticity and provenience works. In their letters, each seemed to flatter the other to achieve their own separate, though similar, ends: to increase visitation to the museum and to enhance the status of the crystal skull.

Read more: archaeology.org



Ancient Mesoamerican peoples manufactured rubber from latex some 3,500 years before the modern invention of vulcanization and even compounded it for different applications, says new research from a Massachusetts Institute of Technology research team.


According to archaeology professor Dorothy Hosler and technical instructor Michael Tarkanian of MIT’s Department of Materials Science and Engineering, pre-Hispanic peoples not only invented rubber, but they perfected a system of chemical processing to enhance rubber’s properties.


The result was strong, wear-resistant rubber for sandal soles, resilient, bouncy rubber for game balls, and rubber optimized for resilience and strength for wide bands used to attach handles to axe heads.


The research follows a 1999 study which demonstrated that these people predated development of Charles Goodyear’s vulcanization process by 3,500 years.


Flourishing from at least 2,000 B.C. to the Spanish invasion in 1521 in what is now parts of Mexico and Central America, the Mesoamerican civilization engineered the properties of latex from the native Castilla elastica tree.


A sticky liquid that dries to a brittle solid, natural latex, which contains an oily chemical called isoprene, was mixed with juice from the morning glory species Ipomoea alba….

They noted that by varying the proportions in the mixture made of Castilla tree sap and morning-glory vine juice, a different kind of rubber could be obtained. 

A 50-50 blend of the latex and morning glory produced maximum bounciness, perfect for the rubber balls. Pure latex worked best for rubber bands and adhesives, while a three-to-one mix of latex to morning glory provided the most durable material, perfect for sandals.

The Mesoamericans had plenty of time to work out these properties through trial and error. By the time the Spanish arrived, there was “a large rubber industry in the region, producing 16,000 rubber balls each year, and large numbers of rubber statues, sandals, bands and other products,” Tarkanian said in a MIT statement.

Source: Discovery News



{April 30, 2010}   Noah’s Ark Found in Turkey?

A team of evangelical Christian explorers claim they’ve found the remains of Noah’s ark beneath snow and volcanic debris on Turkey’s Mount Ararat.

But some archaeologists and historians are taking the latest claim that Noah’s ark has been found about as seriously as they have past ones—which is to say not very.

“I don’t know of any expedition that ever went looking for the ark and didn’t find it,” said Paul Zimansky, an archaeologist specializing in the Middle East at Stony Brook University in New York State.

Turkish and Chinese explorers from a group called Noah’s Ark Ministries International made the latest discovery claim Monday in Hong Kong, where the group is based.

“It’s not 100 percent that it is Noah’s ark, but we think it is 99.9 percent that this is it,” Yeung Wing-cheung, a filmmaker accompanying the explorers, told The Daily Mail.

The team claims to have found in 2007 and 2008 seven large wooden compartments buried at 13,000 feet (4,000 meters) above sea level, near the peak of Mount Ararat. They returned to the site with a film crew in October 2009.

Many Christians believe the mountain in Turkey is the final resting place of Noah’s ark, which the Bible says protected Noah, his family, and pairs of every animal species on Earth during a divine deluge that wiped out most of humanity.

“The structure is partitioned into different spaces,” said Noah’s Ark Ministries International team member Man-fai Yuen in a statement. “We believe that the wooden structure we entered is the same structure recorded in historical accounts. … “

The team says radiocarbon-dated wood taken from the discovery site—whose location they’re keeping secret for now—shows the purported ark is about 4,800 years old, which coincides roughly with the time of Noah’s flood implied by the Bible.

Skepticism of the new Noah’s ark claim extends to at least one scholar who interprets the Bible literally.

Biologist Todd Wood is director of the Center for Origins Research at Bryan College in Tennessee, which pursues biology in a creationist framework.

As a creationist, Wood believes God created Earth and its various life-forms out of nothing roughly 6,000 years ago.

“If you accept a young chronology for the Earth … then radiocarbon dating has to be reinterpreted,” because the method often yields dates much older than 6,000 years, Wood said.

Radiocarbon dating estimates the ages of organic objects by measuring the radioisotope carbon 14, which is known to decay at a set rate over time. The method is generally thought to reach its limit with objects about 60,000 years old. Earth is generally thought to be about four and a half billion years old.

Across the board, radiocarbon dates need to be recalibrated, Wood believes, to reflect shorter time frames.

Given this perceived overestimation in radiocarbon dating, the wood the Noah’s Ark Ministries International team found should have a “traditional” radiocarbon date of several tens of thousands of years if the wood is truly 4,800 years old, Wood said.

“I’m really, really skeptical that this could possibly be Noah’s Ark,” he added. The wood date is “way, way, way too young.”

Wood thinks Noah’s ark will never be found, because “it would have been prime timber after the flood,” he said.

“If you just got off the ark, and there’s no trees, what are you going to build your house out of? You’ve got a huge boat made of wood, so let’s use that,” he said. “So I think it got torn apart and scavenged for building material basically.”

Source: National Geographic



{April 18, 2010}   Pornography in Clay

New pornographic figurines from the Stone Age have been discovered in Germany. But researchers can’t agree on what the 7,000-year-old sculptures mean. Were our ancestors uninhibited sex fiends, or was reproduction strictly controlled to improve mobility? An increasing number of finds seem to indicate the Stone Age was an orgy of sexual imagination.

The project itself was far from extraordinary. Workers near the Eastern German city of Leipzig were digging a ditch for a new gas line. Hum drum. But what they discovered was far from routine. A backhoe unearthed a 7,200-year-old, Stone Age garbage pit — and it was filled with refuse from some of the first farmers on the European continent.

Moreover, upon rushing to the site, archeologists discovered an 8.2 centimeter (3.2 inches) clay torso buried underground. The legs, abdomen and head were missing, but, according to the lucky archeologists, the figure still had its most important features intact: a “well-shaped behind” and a “short, but impressive” penis…..

And the project is becoming ever more fascinating as archeologists continue uncovering additional fragments while sifting through the Stone Age garbage pit. One fragment, which extends from the left calf to the pelvis, appears to be part of a female statue; Adonis, apparently, had a girlfriend. In fact, in an article soon to be published in the journal Germania, Staeuble speculates on how the pieces could fit together. He writes that “there is strong evidence that this is a copulation scene.”

According to Staeuble, the fragments show that the man was standing with his pelvis at a slight angle. The woman in front of him was bent forward, almost at a 90-degree angle. Another indication that the two figures belong together is the fact that they are both made to the same scale — both figures were originally just under 30 centimeters (11.7 inches) tall.

The only depictions of sexual activity known until now were Greek paintings, but they were created more than 4,000 years later. Given this enormous difference in time, the Saxony find has created some confusion. Some believe it was a toy. Archäo, a professional journal, speculates that it may have been “chic” to display these types of sculptures in the “houses of the first farmers between the Saale and Elbe rivers.” Researchers speculate that the figure could also be evidence of a “fertility cult” — a theory that sounds as straightforward as it is vague.

Source:  Spiegel Online International



{April 10, 2010}   Dynasty of Priestesses

For a quarter century, Greek excavation director Nicholas Stampolidis and his dedicated team have been unearthing the untold stories of the people buried some 2,800 years ago in the necropolis of Orthi Petra at Eleutherna on Crete. 


Until now, the site has perhaps been best known for the tomb its excavators dubbed “A1K1,” an assemblage of 141 cremated individuals, all but two of whom were aristocratic men who likely fell in battle in foreign lands. Excavated between 1992 and 1996, this elaborate rock-cut tomb was brimming with fantastic burial goods that date from the ninth to the seventh century B.C., including bronze vessels, gold and silver jewelry, and military regalia, as literally befits the burial of Homeric war heroes. 


Now, two unprecedented discoveries since 2007–three lavish jar burials that contained the remains of a dozen related female individuals and a monumental funerary building where a high priestess and her protégés, also all related, were laid to rest–are adding to our knowledge of Eleutherna’s women, and forcing the scholarly community to reevaluate their importance and role in the so-called “Dark Ages” of Greece.


The site of Eleutherna includes an acropolis, a polis, and a necropolis. Excavations in each area by various teams over the years have shown that the people who lived here–descendants of the Bronze Age civilizations of both the Minoans and the Mycenaeans, as well as the Dorians, warriors from the Greek mainland who settled on Crete between 1100 and 900 B.C.–controlled a vast territory, beginning around the ninth century B.C.


The surrounding landscape, rich in stone, lumber, honey, and plant resources, may have played a large part in Eleutherna’s economic success. The site is also strategically located, nestled in the olive-tree-dotted foothills of the sacred Mount Ida, some six miles from the sea and 10 miles from the so-called “cave of Zeus,” where the head of the Greek pantheon was raised.

Read more



It is generally accepted that pyrotechnology or the manipulation of fire began in Europe around 25,000 years ago, however new evidence has come to light that may suggest it began in South Africa 50,000 years earlier.

A cache of weapons made from a stone called silcrete have been found with a glossy red colouring. This suggesting that the people discovered that heating the rock would transform it from a poor material for tool making, into an outstanding one as it would make it easier to flake allowing for more advanced blades and other tools to be made.

The findings were published in August 2009 and suggest that some of the 72,000 year old tools were mounted on handles and used to hunt, amongst other things, Cape buffalo and the tiny mole rat, made in to knives or into valuable items for exchange purposes.

According to archaeologist Kyle Brown of the University of Cape Town, the control of fire is of the utmost significance as it marks the point in our evolution when we became ‘uniquely human’.

Brown claims that far from fitting the stereotypical image of the brutish, unintelligent caveman, these people demonstrated high levels of intelligence and may even have been responsible for colonizing the rest of the world.


Read more



{September 5, 2009}   Vampire found in Italy?

From the page: “A living vampire would be relatively easy to spot, so it was believed. They had an aversion to silver, garlic and holy water and could not enter a house unless invited.”

Come on in girl, and bite me! 😉

Vampire found in Italy?



Archaeologists are to search three sites in Egypt that they say may contain the tomb of doomed lovers Anthony and Cleopatra.

Excavation at the sites, which are near a temple west of the coastal city of Alexandria, is due to begin next week.

Teams working in the area said the recent discovery of tombs containing 10 mummies suggested that Anthony and Cleopatra might be buried close by.

The teams also found a bust of Cleopatra and coins carrying her image.

The archaeologists from Egypt and the Dominican Republic have been excavating at the temple of Taposiris Magna for the last three years.

‘Charm’

There they discovered a series of deep shafts in which it is thought that Anthony and Cleopatra might be buried, Egypt’s Supreme Council of Antiquities said in a statement.

Alongside the coins and bust of Cleopatra, a mask believed to belong to Mark Anthony was also found.

The temple was built during the reign of King Ptolemy II (282-246BC).

Anthony and Cleopatra committed suicide in 30BC after losing the Battle of Actium.

Zahi Hawass, Egypt’s chief archaeologist, said the coins found at the temple refuted “what some scholars have said about Cleopatra being very ugly”.

“The finds from Taposiris reflect a charm… and indicate that Cleopatra was in no way unattractive,” he said.

A team of experts from Newcastle University said two years ago that another set of coins showed the beauty of Anthony and Cleopatra portrayed in popular culture to have been exaggerated.


Source BBC News



An almost complete flute made out of the bones of griffon vulture was found in 2008 at Hohle Fels, in a cave in Southern Germany. It has five finger holes, a V-shaped mouthpiece and is 0.3 inches (8 millimetres) wide and was 13 inches (34 centimetres) long when it was whole.

Archaeologist Nicholas Conard of the University of Tübingen in Germany stated the earliest finds of this kind previously dated from around 35,000 years ago at the near by site Geissenklosterle, but at 40,000 years old, this one dates back to the earliest period of settlement in the region by modern man and is probably the oldest musical instrument ever found.

Fragments of mammoth ivory flutes were also found at the site and according to the team these would have been particularly difficult to make. After splitting a section of curved ivory with only stone tools, the two halves would have been hollowed out, carved and joined together with an airtight seal.

Conard and his team argue that music would have given the early settlers an advantage over rival humans, the Neanderthal, as it would have improved communication between modern humans and helped form tighter social bonds. Conard stated;

“Think how important music is for us. Whether it’s at church, a party, or just for fun, you can see how powerful music can be. People often hear a song and cry, or feel great joy or sorrow. All of those kinds of emotions help bond people together.”

Another possibility is that the flutes were made by Neanderthals, but although not completely ruled out, it is unlikely as the flutes were found alongside other artefacts, including a figure of a woman with an exaggerated figure, the likes of which have only ever been found at sites with modern human settlement.

Recently, a replica of the flute was sent to a professional musician and made what Conard described as “low-pitched sounds across a wide range of tones”.

(Bukisa ID #114140)

Content Source: Oldest Musical Instrument Discovered by Archaeologists – Bukisa.com



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